evolution and classification

kingdom Multicellular and generally mobile organisms.
Arthropods, Molluscs, Mammals, Birds, Fish, Reptiles, Jellyfish...
phylum 1,000 MY. 1,200,000 sp.
Invertebrates with jointed appendages and segmented body, supported and protected by an exoskeleton.
Crustaceans, Hexapods, Myriapods...
superclass 600 MY. 1,000,000 sp.
Three pairs of legs, eleven abdominal segments at most.
Insects, Two-pronged Britlebails, Coneheads, Springtails...
class 400 MY. 835,000 sp.
Two pairs of wings. Heterometabolous (Dragonflies, Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Mantids...) and Holometabolous insects (Beetles, Butterflies...) more advanced in their development through states -egg, larva, pupa and imago-
order 325 MY. 830,000 sp.
Forewings modified protective sleeve covering the hind wings at rest.
Beetles mainly Adephagous (Carabs, Tiger beetles, Water beetles) and Polyphagous (Weevils, Scarabs...).
superfamily 275 MY. 350,000 sp.
Legs with five articles to tarsus four visible.
Long-horned and Leaf Beetles.
family 120 MY. 70,000 sp.
Antennae often longer than the body, inserted in an indentation of the eye.
Long-horned Beetles.
subfamily 100 MY. 40,000 sp.
Retractile head or vertical forehead, apically sharp palps.
80 MY. 20,000 sp.
There are many websites on longhorned beetles today. The links page namedCerambycoidea ring (www.cerambycoidea.com) lists most of them.

Some examples of representative websites on their perimeter:
  • www.cerambycoidea.com is also interesting for its forum, its gallery and its digital library
  • www.biolib.com gives an updated list of taxa very useful for example to check the spelling and valid combination to apply
  • plant.cdfa.ca.gov/byciddb has a very useful gallery to determine the American longhorned beetle
  • www.scielo.com is a Brazilian scientific electronic library (Iheringia, Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, Zoologia...)
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